This file is found in the website directory. Its basic functionality is to redirect web pages. However, more complex .htaccess files can protect web pages with passwords, disable scripts, and prevent hot links for images.


This is an HTTP status code noting that the webpage is accessible. The page accessed is visible on the browser, complete with the correct URL. This is the standard code for all functioning pages across the web.


This status code indicates that the webpage being surfed has been moved permanently to a new URL. This code appears if the existing page has not been redirected to a new location dictated by the server or by the page code.


This status code indicates the resource requested has been temporarily moved to the URL given in the location header. A browser redirects to this page, but search engines don’t update their links and act as though the original page still exists. This is meant as a temporary redirect until the page code can be updated or edited.


This status code indicates a “bad request” that the server cannot or will not process. This may be due to bad page coding, faulty request routing, or general client errors. As this represents the complex relationships between the server, the browser, and the web client, this can be frustrating to fix.


This is among the most common status codes found. It simply means that the page was not found. This may be because the resource does not exist, or the server is not willing to disclose it. Many websites host their custom 404 pages to keep their design consistent with the rest of the pages.


This status code indicates that the resource is intentionally unavailable. Usually, this also means that website owners want to permanently remove all links to that source. Like the 404 page, websites may have their custom 410 page.


This status code indicates that the server experienced a condition that keeps it from fulfilling the request. These can be frustrating to deal with, as the condition is almost never specified. It is important to note that the error is on the server side, so it’s never a problem with a user’s browser or scripts.


Above the fold

This refers to all the content that a user sees on a website before they scroll. This may include the name of the website, as well as banner ads and important page links. In 2012, Google rolled out an algorithm that lowered the rankings of pages with too many ads above the fold.

ALT tag

An alt tag is a bit of text used to describe an image. Search engines cannot read or analyze images, so ALT tags make it possible for search engines to determine what is in an image. These may come in the form of general descriptions such as “brown cat chasing ball”, or the like. Related Articles: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT “ALT TAGS”


This is the science of collecting data and analyzing it to find patterns. This may end up in discovering trends and determining the effects of certain decisions or events. The aim is to collect knowledge in order to make improvements or changes.

Anchor Text

The clickable words of a link. This is usually depicted in Google, Microsoft Word, and unformatted web pages as blue underlined text. Upon clicking the text, the user will be sent to the link it directs to.


This stands for Application Program Interface. It is a set of protocols, tools, and routines for building software applications. It helps make building a program easier by providing the building blocks and specifying how software components should interact.


An Application Program Interface Key acts as authentication for the owner of a website’s API. This opens up a bundle of rights open to a user, much like a username and password on most websites.

Authority Links

These are links from websites that are trusted by search engines. This may be due to a series of factors such as website age and userbase size. Having more authority links means that a website has a larger chance of ranking higher in SERPs.

Authority Site

This is a high-quality site that is respected by knowledgeable people in the industry. Google’s algorithm rewards such websites with good content by placing them higher in the SERPs pages.



Also known as an inbound link, this is a link that originates from another website. For example, if there is a link to a video from a Facebook account, then the link to that video counts a backlink.

Backlink Analysis

This is an analysis of all backlinks that redirect people to your site. The information you might be looking at may include how many websites link to each page, as well as the number of people who clicked each link. Knowing all these metrics that go into building backlinks is essential to planning out a website and getting it to rank higher in SERPs.

Backlink Checker

This is a tool that analyzes the backlink statistics of a website, such as the number of links per page and the authority of each link. This is important to identify bad links and to determine where the backlinks lead to. This information is important for improving a website owner’s linking strategy.


Bing is Microsoft’s own search engine, launched in June 2009. It replaced MSN Search and Windows Live Search. Since 2010, it has powered Yahoo’s organic search results.

Black Hat

This refers to a method of SEO that does not respect Google’s Webmaster Guidelines. This may involve tactics such as keyword stuffing, spamming, and the like. Google penalizes those that engage in Black Hat SEO by dropping their rankings. Related Article: 3 REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD AVOID BLACK HAT SOCIAL MEDIA


A result of black hat SEO, this is when a search engine refuses to list a certain site. This obliterates any chances of people seeing a certain website on SERPs. To avoid this, good, carefully planned, white hat SEO is recommended.


This is published content sorted in chronological order. This is usually content created by a website, for that website. The name comes from its older term, web logs. Read our written blog articles here:

Blog comment spam

Refers to a type of link building where comments usually found at the bottom of the blog are intentionally left to provide links that are irrelevant to a blog content. Though most are software generated, some blog comment spamming are done by people. It is highly discouraged for optimizers to practice this type of linking.


It is a device or software that can perform simple tasks online automatically or with very little human influence such as initiating searches online or collecting data; originated from the word “robot”.

Bounce Rate

Bounce Rate is the percentage of visitors who enter a website and leave immediately without visiting its other pages. This is a tracking tool to differentiate web surfers who accessed a website by mistake from people who intend on visiting the same website. According to Google, a website’s Bounce Rate is not a direct ranking factor even if it can indicate possible problems such as content or website issues.

Branded Keyword

These are words used to find results in search engine usually containing a brand name or a company name e.g “Samsung most popular smartphone 2018”.

Bread Crumbs

These are links that show users the trail or path they have gone through from the website’s homepage to the web page they are currently viewing; usually found at the top of the web page.

Broken Link

A link that does not work for whatever reason, such as incorrect characters within the link or expired domain.

Broken Link Building

A link-creating method that starts by finding broken links before making new working links and cloning the broken links’ contents into them.


Cache/Web Cache

This is the term for web data temporarily stored in devices such as computers and smartphones to reduce server lag; also the technology (device or software) that grants this.


Call-To-Action, abbreviated as CTA, essentially means calling the attention of the website visitors to avail of its advertised services. Used primarily as a marketing tactic for their products and services, Call-To-Action is integrated through buttons that have labels such as “Click Here” or “Buy Now.”


This is an HTML element which helps determine the original source of contents and prevent these contents from being fetched through different URLs or website. When an Internet user searches for these contents, the results will always refer to its original web page / the web page that contains the  “rel=canonical” element.

Click Bait

These are seemingly interesting contents online that lure readers to click on links that lead to different web pages which usually serve to generate traffic only; considered a negative term.


Click-Through-Rate is used as a tracking tool to measure the success of the website’s advertisement. It is the rate at which users click on an ad or link that is found on the Google Search Results Page. This rate is expressed in percentage and is computed through dividing organic clicks by the number of impressions. The dividend will then be multiplied by 100 to determine the rate.


Cloaking is the process wherein black hat SEOs upload a content for a website that is presented to search engines, but is completely different from the content of the website. Similar to Click-Bait, this is an illegal black hat SEO tactic that violates Google’s Webmaster Guidelines. The use of this technique may also cause a website to incur penalties.


Competition refers to people or businesses who provide products and services similar to that of one’s business online. There are two types of competition namely: Direct Competitors: these are establishments that sell similar products, services, and needs. They also engage in garnering the same audience both in and out of the web. SEO Competitors: these are establishments who utilize the same keywords and are opting for the same organic search visibility. What makes them different from direct competitors is that they do not necessarily have the same products and or service and may even target a different audience altogether.


Competitors are people and/or companies who are offering services that are the same with a website that the development team is handling. Refer to Competition for more details.


This is the method of compressing software/digital files/data or making them smaller in terms of the size that they take up in a server in order to load the data faster for the website users; usually done to images


Content can range from words, images, videos, and even audio components found on a website that makes the user experience more engaging. Search engines such as Google are now rewarding sites that have informative, credible, and engaging content in the form of website traffic and visibility.

Content Management System (CMS)

This acronym stands for Content Management System. This is a program that allows users to modify, create, organize, and publish content. An example of this is WordPress.


Conversion is the process where the users complete an act within the website to avail of their services. Examples of these are when users complete a purchase for an item, accomplishing a registration form, and subscribing to a newsletter via email.

Conversion Rate

This is the ratio between the number of visitors to a website and the number of people who complete the desired action on the website. The desired actions, called conversions, may range from completing a purchase to completing a form. Ideally, a website with good content and performance should have a high conversion rate.

Crawl Budget

In simple terms, this is a plan on the number of pages in a website that will be visited by a crawler (such as Googlebot), which pages to prioritize, when, and how much resources the website’s hosting server can allocate to crawling them.

Crawl Error

These are errors that do not allow search engine bots or crawlers to index a page or a site. If one attempts to enter a site that cannot be crawled, it will not provide the content needed rather, one would be prompted with a status code error.


It is a program that creates an index of online data by methodically scanning the Internet, visiting different websites, and reading through the contents of different web pages; also known as “spider”.


“Cascading Style Sheet”; determines the more specific layout or style of HTML elements on a web page or on multiple web pages at the same time.



It is the term for characters, symbols, and information related to the operations and processes of a computer; also information stored and transmitted as electrical signals.


This refers to when Google removes a website or webpage from its search results. This may be permanent or temporary, depending on the circumstances. Websites may be de-indexed due to punishment for violating Google’s Webmaster Guidelines.

Deep link

This is the hyperlink seen inside the contents of a web page leading to other specific pages of a website in order to generate more traffic to that website.


A google tool that ignores low-quality and spammy inbound links that you have made and cannot remove for specific reasons from being considered by their system.


Do-Follow is an attribute that allows the links found on a specific website to follow the Link Juice, which lets the users access external websites by clicking on a hyperlink. Do-Follow is the default setting of a website, meaning that there is no need for development teams to input this attribute in order for it to work.

Domain Authority

Domain Authority, abbreviated as DA, is the overall “strength” of a whole domain. This means that the higher the DA is, the more trustworthy and credible the website. Examples of websites that have a high DA are websites that are mandated by the government (.gov domain) and educational (.edu domain) institutions. Additionally, the Moz extension is often used as a tool to measure a website’s DA.

Duplicate content

This refers to content on one webpage that matches or is very similar to content on another webpage. This may be evidence of plagiarism or black hat SEO. Duplicate content is usually redirected to a canonical page or deleted altogether.

Dwell Time

This is one of the site metrics used to evaluate traffic on a website. Dwell Time records and measures how much time a visitor spends on a certain webpage before going back to the Search Engine Results Page. The length of Dwell Time indicates how much content the visitor has consumed or read on the page before moving on to another page or going back to the SERPs.



E-Commerce is the term used to describe business transactions that are being conducted through the Internet. Examples of websites that practice E-Commerce are Amazon and eBay.

Editorial Link

This is the term for a link of a page which is generated in search engines because of that page’s good content and natural popularity; not paid for, unlike acquired links.

Engagement Metrics

Engagement Metrics are used to measure how much users engage in or participate in a website’s content. These metrics are also used as tools to determine how a specific website performs in terms of attracting visitors. Examples of Engagement Metrics are Bounce Rate, Click-Through-Rate, and Dwell Time.

External Link

This is a hyperlink in a webpage that leads to a different website or to a location outside of the currently viewed website.


Featured Snippet

This refers to a special block where the summary to a response to a specific query can be found. This also includes the link to the webpage from which the summary is found. Featured snippets are usually found if the query takes the form of a question.

Footer link

A type of link that is placed at the bottom of the page. They are less and less being used by SEO optimization as they can be devalued by search engines nowadays. Additionally, the position of these links are unlikely seen by users and are overshadowed by anchor texts (hyperlinks found on the content).



The birth child of Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Google pioneered the shift from human-edited web directories to what we know today. They utilized web crawling technology and sophisticated algorithms to analyze patterns to rank websites. It is currently the most-used search engine worldwide.

Google Panda

This is a Google algorithm that rolled out in February 2011. Its main goal was to reduce the visibility of bad or low-quality content, usually created by content farms and spambots. It became part of Google’s core algorithm in 2016.

Google Penguin

The code name of one of Google’s algorithm updates which was released on April 2012; mainly used to better detect spamming search results and remove bad links.

Google Pigeon

This is the code name of one of Google’s local search algorithm updates which was released on July 24, 2014; it is said to “improve [Google’s] distance and location ranking parameters”. This means that with this new algorithm update, Google can provide better local search results.

Google Search Console

Formerly known as Google Webmaster Tools, Google Search Console is a free-to-use tool that can help development teams monitor their websites. This tool offers many features that can be used to track the performance of a website, such as its speed and crawl rate.

Google Trends

Google Trends is a website by Google where users can view the latest topics and analyze current search trends. This website also makes use of different data visualizations, such as bar graphs and pie charts, that can help users to better understand emerging trends.

Guest Blogging

The practice of posting content on another person’s website in order to gain relationships, connections, exposure, traffic, and links; also known as guest posting.


Heading Tags

Heading Tags are primarily used to segregate a webpage’s content into sections. There are 6 types of Heading Tags (H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6) which are based on importance, with H1 being the most important and H6 being the least. Out of all types, the H1 is the most visible as it is often found above the content of web pages.

Hidden Text

This is text on a webpage deliberately hidden by the website owner. This usually takes the form of keywords and copies of such. This type of SEO can cause a webpage to be blacklisted from Google and other search engines.


The term for the default or introductory page of a website. It serves as the starting point and contains the main information for that website such as domain. The URL usually (but not always) ends with “index.html” or is the same as the website’s main URL.


Aka Hypertext Markup Language, it is a text-based system used in defining the structure and the different elements of a webpage. It determines how texts, images, and other types of multimedia are displayed on the page.


Aka Hypertext Transfer Protocol, it is an elemental Internet protocol that dictates how data is formatted and transmitted. It also determines what actions or responses are appropriate for different kinds of commands.


Aka Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure; the secure version.


Inbound Link

An inbound link is a type of link to a certain site or web page that comes from an external site. If website A, for example, would link to website B, it would be an inbound link for website B’s side and vice versa.


This is the term for the database of a search engine storing information of the different websites found by that search engine.

Internal Link

It is a hyperlink in a webpage that leads to a different file or webpage of the currently viewed website; the link does not lead to a location outside the current website.

IP Address

Also known as IP or Internet Protocol Address, an IP Address is a unique set of numbers that allows a user’s device to be recognized on the Internet or a specific network. There are two types of IP Address, namely:
  • Shared – Also known as Virtual Hosting, a shared IP means that multiple websites share the same address.
  • Dedicated – A dedicated IP means that a specific website has a unique address that is not used by other websites.



A programming language that allows for the addition, removal, and modification of website elements such as content, links, and metadata. The downside of such language is that it can slow down the crawl process of search engine bots and make the loading time a lot longer.



Also referred to as Keyphrase, a keyword is a phrase comprised of ideas or topics that match a website’s services. These are integrated into a webpage which allows search engines to crawl these pages whenever a user enters a query. There are two types of keywords, namely:
  • Short-tail: Short-tail keywords are phrases that are made up of 1 to 3 keywords. Short-tail keywords have higher competition but yield a lower conversion rate. An example of this is bathroom remodeling.
  • Long-tail: Long-tail keywords are phrases or short sentences that are made up of 4 or more words. Long-tail keywords have lower competition but yield a higher conversion rate. An example of this is bathroom remodeling services in Atlanta, GA.

Keyword Cannibalization

It occurs when multiple pages on a website have the same integrated keyword. This results in a decreased rate of rankings for the site as multiple pages are competing with each other for authority and or rank.

Keyword Density

The number of keywords that are found on a content. It is an indicator of the frequency of a search term that appears in a text. Keyword density is also associated with spam. That is, the higher the keyword density, the more that a text is considered to be spammy.

Keyword Research

Keyword Research refers to the process where development teams look for relevant topics and terms that are entered into search engines by users. This process is usually done to find the best keywords that can help a website garner a higher rank in search results. Development teams use a variety of tools, such as Google Keyword Planner and Rank Tracker, to help them find these ideas.

Keyword Stuffing

It is the process of incorporating keywords beyond what is considered natural to a certain site in the hopes of increasing its ranking. This process is already proven to be ineffective and can even lead the site’s ranking to decline.

Knowledge Graph

A Google element that is utilized to provide information about people, places, news, and events along with various related information in the knowledge panel at the top of search results.


Landing Page

Landing Page refers to a page of a website where a user is directed to after clicking on an ad or link. Used an extended form of advertisement, Landing Pages are designed to capture the interest of users to avail of a website’s services and/or products.

Latent Semantic Indexing

LSI is a method that was designed to retrieve data or information in order to help search engines identify the right context of a word. It has since been discontinued as part of the SEO process with the introduction of faster and better retrieval methods.


Serves as a bridge between different websites, apps, and or social sites. Links enable users to move from one program to another. They also serve as a ranking factor for search engines to evaluate.

Link Building

A process designed to get other relevant and influential websites to link to your website in order to improve your search rank and visibility in an organic fashion. There are numerous ways in which link building can be done, some of which are:
  • Requesting media outlets, people, and webmasters to link to your website (also known as outreach).
  • Publishing high-quality content to attract editorial links, people, and other businesses to link to you.
  • Acquiring links by paying people, businesses, and other entities to link to your site.
  • Manually adding your site to directories and review sites.

Link Juice

This is an informal term used in SEO that pertains to the SEO value of a hyperlink to a particular website or webpage. Basically what it means is that the more value or “juice” a hyperlink has, the better.


Meta Description

Meta Description is a group of short sentences that briefly describe a web page’s services. Although it is not a direct factor in a page’s ranking, these descriptions directly influence a page’s Click-Through-Rate. Not only are these displayed in the search results, but these descriptions also entice people to visit a web page. Additionally, Meta Description consists of 155 characters and is 2-3 sentences long.

Meta Keywords

Meta Keywords are used to reflect the services of a specific web page through the use of keywords. These are not displayed on any pages of the website and are written in the HTML code of different web pages along with the other meta tags. This means that users are not able to see Meta Keywords without accessing the backend of a web page. In recent times, major search engines have de-emphasized Meta Keywords mainly due to keyword stuffing. This means that these keywords would not be a factor in a website’s ranking.

Meta Tags

Meta Tags are information that describes the content of a website to search engines. This information is shown in the Google Search Engine Results Page whenever users search for keywords that are connected with the service of the website. Examples of Meta Tags are title tag and meta description.

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